Until recently, no one called the cultivation of mushrooms a business. Raised for themselves and a little for sale. However, the consumption of this product began to increase every year. And then the mushroom business idea was picked up by many.
Simple calculations speak of good profits even with modest investments. And the process itself is so simple that with a little deepening in the topic, anyone can understand how to grow mushrooms.
Pros and Cons of a Mushroom Growing Business
Let’s start with the positives:
- The state does not require a license for this type of commercial activity;
- During the cultivation of mushrooms, the vagaries of the weather will not interfere with you;
- The production itself does not involve careful maintenance, you just need to properly set up the process;
- Starting small, it’s easy to scale up as needed;
- You do not need deep agrotechnical knowledge, there are detailed instructions, they simply should not be violated;
- The environmental friendliness and benefits of mushrooms are undeniable, therefore, by offering these products to people who care about their health, you can charge a higher price;
- The cost of starting production will quickly pay off and the amount of income will certainly please you.
When developing a business plan, one cannot ignore the difficult points:
- When working directly on the sites with planting material and finished products, it is necessary to protect the respiratory tract and have overalls. Harmful substances emitted by fungi into the atmosphere can cause diseases of the skin and respiratory organs;
- The temperature and humidity in the premises must be maintained in accordance with all agricultural practices. The equipment is in good condition. Insufficient ventilation or low light will result in crop loss;
- We must not forget about diseases of fungi, bacteria and pests. And also about ways to deal with them;
- In any business, sales play a key role, especially if the parties are large. You need to think through all the nuances in advance.
The most popular types of mushrooms to grow
1) Oyster mushrooms belong to agaric fungi (Pleurotus). Caps are smooth, lamellar below. The white flesh is odorless and does not darken when cut. Oyster mushrooms contain vitamins of groups B, PP, D, C, potassium, copper, selenium, zinc, phosphorus, iron. Safe and unpretentious, the cost of their cultivation is minimal. The first harvest is not long to wait. They have a fairly long fruiting period. Redeem quickly.
2) Champignons belong to the lamellar genus (Agaricaceae). The name is taken from the French champignon, which means “mushroom”. Dense rounded cap becomes flatter with age, white flesh. Contains proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, iron, zinc, phosphorus, potassium, which supports the immune system. 27.4 kcal per 100 g allow the use of champignons in various diets, pantothenic acid relieves fatigue. For growing, a cool room with good humidity is selected. Temperature fluctuations are not allowed. Light is not needed.
3) Shiitake . The Japanese and Chinese were the first to take it. This mushroom was called imperial because of its indispensable presence in the menu of the rulers. In addition to cooking, it is used as a medicine. The hat is dark brown, lamellar, 5-20 cm in diameter. Zinc, complex carbohydrates, proteins with all the main amino acids – includes everything you need for a complete diet.
When irradiated with ultraviolet or sunlight, the content of vitamin D in mushrooms increases by 2.5 times. Dried shiitake is used to lower blood cholesterol levels, strengthen immunity, increase male potency, stress resistance and increase life expectancy. Can be grown outdoors on stumps, tree trunks and in a greenhouse . Harvest every 2 – 3 weeks.
4) Everyone can cultivate honey mushrooms at home. It does not require much effort, they are grown in an apartment, basement, greenhouse. The air temperature should be constant 10 – 15 degrees. Humidity, ventilation and lighting are also important. Honey mushrooms retain their beneficial properties during processing. Indispensable in cooking: tasty, nutritious and low-calorie. In medicine, they help fight oncology, tuberculosis, influenza and alcoholism.
How to start a mushroom production business
Any business in any field always begins with calculations. We draw up a business plan either on our own, or we turn to specialists.
- We research the market for demand, determine the product to be produced.
- Based on the area used, we predict the volume of production. Do not forget to think over sales in advance: how much we will sell fresh, how to process what remains unsold.
- Where we get finances , raw materials, what premises we use, how many personnel we recruit – we reflect everything in the business plan.
- We analyze prices, market, competitors. Where and what kind of advertising will be placed.
- We think over the organizational structure and distribute powers.
- We write a detailed financial plan in which we forecast income and expenses.
Technology for growing mushrooms at home
Forewarned is forearmed
Before proceeding directly to the process, it is better to study the literature on growing mushrooms, visit forums and websites, and ask questions to experienced mushroom growers.
Focus on the observance of technology and the acquisition of the main components – mycelium and substrate. At the beginning of cultivation, mushrooms need warmth for the development of mycelium. You can arrange containers with champignons and oyster mushrooms in several tiers, which will save space.
For champignons , a shaded room is better. It is important to prepare a nutrient mixture, which includes straw, manure and sawdust. You need to cook it in a few weeks, only then make mycelium. Soil quality will ensure productivity. Beginners can buy spore mycelium: grain or dung.