Pallets are a necessary attribute of every warehouse. Currently, any company that is engaged in wholesale deliveries uses pallets in its activities. Using pallets, the company greatly simplifies the workflow of many warehouse employees, transporting cargo across its territory, unloading and loading operations.
Thanks to pallets, goods can be stored in several rows, the calculation of goods is simplified and the presentation of the packaging is preserved. The conclusion suggests itself: pallets are a consumable element and therefore there will always be a demand for them. So how to establish their production and make money on it? Let’s figure it out!
Types and classification of pallets
A pallet is a container that has a reliable, rigid base on which cargo is assembled, reloaded and stored.
Pallets are divided into:
- Disposable, which are intended for the delivery of goods to the recipient and further disposal
The sizes of disposable pallets are not regulated by law. Requirements for multi-turn pallets are regulated by European standards, therefore, in the Russian Federation, these pallets are called “euro pallets”.
Also, pallets have the following classification:
- Double-entry, the shape of which makes it possible for a loader to approach from two sides only
- Four-way, access for the loader is carried out from all sides
In the production of pallets, various raw materials are used: wood, metal, plastic.
Wooden pallets are the most common. Disposable pallets are produced by the manufacturer of the goods in order to ensure that the goods produced correspond to the dimensions of the pallet.
The shape and dimensions of reusable pallets are set by European standards (DIN) and some Russian ones.
In the device of the pallet, it is necessary to have holes on all sides, which are important for a secure grip when working on a loader and palletizing the folded goods.
The base of the pallet is:
- Solid when the boards lie close to each other
- Not solid when there is a gap between the boards
Pallet quality requirements
The fastening of all elements of the pallet is made with metal staples and nails. During high humidity, the tree swells and there is a risk of the hardware falling out, so that this does not happen, they must be bent during production.
The material for the production of pallets should not have a moisture content of more than 25%. As the main material in the production of wooden pallets are coniferous trees, which have a low grade, larch and birch.
The boards are used in one piece. All components of the pallet must exclude mechanical damage, knots on the end boards and at the attachment points, cracks that are typical for the ends of the boards.
The size of the crack should not exceed 50 mm. In the event of a knot falling out during production, the hole is closed with a wooden cork using waterproof glue.
Pallets must have:
- The mark of the company that manufactured this pallet
- Pallet release date
- Weight in kg
- Gross lifting capacity in tons
- Signs indicating that sanitization has been done.
Features of a wooden pallet manufacturing business
A business plan for opening and manufacturing pallets has several prerequisites:
- The growing demand for pallets suggests that there will be no problems with sales. In this matter, it is important to follow the pricing policy and remain competitive.
- The production process is quite simple, which allows you to open production in a limited area.
- Cheap raw materials.
- You can start a business with a minimum start-up capital and be limited to manual production. With the increase in demand and increase in turnover, it is possible to purchase equipment, which will lead to a new impetus to increase profits.
The payback of this business is due to the cost of raw materials necessary for the manufacture of goods. It is desirable to open such a business in places where the woodworking industry is developed, and in some cases it is better to open it at a woodworking enterprise.
This will reduce the cost of materials and transportation. Cheap board is used as the main raw material.
Manufacturing technology of wooden pallets
As the main raw material in the production of pallets, whole wood timber is used, as well as checkers glued from pressed sawdust, second-rate boards. Features of each element are reflected in GOST 9557-87.
The manufacturing process of pallets involves their production from raw materials, which are dried in drying compartments with a total volume of 400 cubic meters. m and more.
During the drying process, the pallet is coated with a disinfectant. The manufacture of pallets is the driving of nails into blanks using a special machine.
The connection of the lower part of the pallet with the upper one is performed once from both sides. After the nails are driven into the bottom of the pallet, the worker returns it and stacks it in the main stack.
In this process, the main link is the use of a hydraulic nailer, the rest is auxiliary processes.
The average cost of a pallet is 260-360 rubles per piece. Delivery of pallets to remote regions of the country is unprofitable. For this reason, the production is concentrated at the points of obtaining the most budgetary wood raw materials, the assembly of pallets is carried out in those regions where the need is higher.
For the production of templates, the most optimized and most profitable in terms of investment is the availability of own wood resources, which are distinguished by an acceptable price-quality ratio.
There are no specific requirements for pallet shapes, but an important indicator is the use of thin wood. For the effective use of budget wood species, it is important, initially, to cross-cut into logs of the same length. All this makes it possible to save on production space.
At the last stage, the ends of the nails are bent, the corners are cut with a chain saw using a lodgment and branding. Finished pallets are shipped to customers packed, in a dense film. During storage, the height of pallet stacks does not exceed 6 meters, the allowable slope is 50 mm.
Pallet making equipment
Regardless of the demand in the market, when creating a company, an important criterion is the choice of equipment. If you want to put production on a grand scale, then an automated pallet production line looks like this:
- Chain conveyor (for accumulation and storage of stacks of finished pallets)
- Marking machine (for hot stamping on a pallet)
- Chamfering Machine
- Corner Trimming Machine
- Combined machine (The machine is designed for simultaneous knocking of legs and final knocking of a pallet from finished legs and decks)
- Turner (for turning 90 degrees and/or flipping the pallet before stacking)
- Pallet stacker (for stacking finished pallets)
- Machine for knocking down pallet decks (designed for knocking down the top flooring of pallets)
The productivity of such a line is 3-4 pallets / min, depending on the manufacturer of the equipment.
If not in a big way, then it will be most profitable for you to buy as a whole, or to assemble a jig for assembling wooden pallets in parts (used will cost 250-300 thousand rubles).
- Conductor – 1 pc.
- Canopy with a system for suspension and movement of air guns – 1 set
- Pneumatic cylinders of the company – 14 pcs
- Air preparation units for air guns — 2 pcs.
- Filter regulator on the conductor – 1 pc.
- Balancers for suspension of air guns for 3-5 kg and 5-7 kg
- Spiral hose for air guns — 2 pcs
- Anvils for bending nails – 9 pcs
Productivity – 15-30 pallets / hour, depending on the motivation and experience of the employee.
Depending on the volume of products produced, a business can be formalized in two ways:
At first, when the business is just starting to gain momentum, it is more reasonable to formalize the business as an individual entrepreneur. This form of organization gives the right to work on a simplified taxation system. Documents required:
- Power of attorney. It is provided in case of submission of documents through an authorized representative. This power of attorney must be notarized;
- Receipt of payment of state duty, cost 800 r;
- Passport, photocopy (copies must be certified by a notary);
- Information about the taxation system chosen by the entrepreneur;
- TIN certificate (photocopy);
- Form application.
Provide the prepared certificates to the tax service, which is located at the place of registration, or take the package with documents to the MFC, in this case there is no link to the place of registration.
When producing large volumes of products, which involves the supply of large companies and enterprises, it is important to register a business on pallets as an LLC. This type of organizational and legal form gives the right to sell products in large quantities, paying a fee and not to lose wholesale buyers. For this you will need:
- Application form;
- Receipt of payment of the state duty, worth 5,000 rubles;
- A paper on the organization of the company (if the manager is one) or a document with
- the results of the meeting (if there are 2-3 founders);
- Establishment agreement;
- Articles of association;
- Certificate of presence of a legal address;
- The collected certificates are submitted to the tax service.
How much can you earn in the production of wooden pallets?
The production of one pallet requires 3 bars, 6 boards and 36 nails. The cost of manufacturing pallets is presented as follows:
Lumber – 70 rubles
- Nails – 10 rubles
- Trimming – 12 rubles
- Electricity – 15 rubles
- Room rental – 10 rubles
- Salary – 20 rubles
- Taxes and other expenses – 25 rubles
The total cost of one pallet is 162 rubles
Depending on the format of production as well as the price of wood, the cost can be either lower or much higher. Prices for pallets in the regions also vary. But the estimated price is 250 rubles.
The net profit from one pallet is ~ 80 rubles.
Like any other business, pallet production requires careful analysis:
- Offers of competitors (prices)
- Product demand
- Timber supply prices
- What selling price will suit you and can you sell at that price
And the numbers will show you better than any advisers whether you should get involved in this adventure or not.